私立学校(Private Schools)

英国的私立学校分为以下几类:

寄宿中学(Boarding School)

英国的寄宿中学有著近千年的历史,这些寄宿中学以前大多数附属于宗教机构,主要培养皇室及上层阶级的子女;随著时间的推移,寄宿中学也开始接受各个阶层的学生。寄宿中学大多拥有优良的师资和设施,学生毕业的成绩非常优秀。

中六高级中学 (Six Form College)

中六高级中学只招收12和13年级的学生,即就读A-Level级别的学生。私立的中六高级中学规模一般都较小,师生比例较低,教学质量较公立的中六高级中学好。

Private schools, also known as independent schools or nonstate schools, are not administered by local, state or national governments; thus, they retain the right to select their students and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students tuition, rather than relying on mandatory taxation through public (government) funding; at some private schools students may be able to get a scholarship, which makes the cost cheaper, depending on a talent the student may have e.g. sport scholarship, art scholarship, academic scholarship etc.

英国公学 Public School

提起温莎的伊顿公学,很多人都会略有耳闻。亨利六世于1440年创立了伊顿公学,最早为70名贫穷学生提供免费教育,作为进入剑桥大学国王学院的预备学校,到17世纪学校逐渐成为一所名校。

在英国,独立学校(也被称为私立学校,及在某些情况下指公学)是一间由私人资源资助的学校,资源的主要形式是学费、馈赠和长期慈善捐赠基金,并不受国家财政条例管制。英国大约有2,500间独立学校,教育大约615,000名学童(占全英国儿童仅仅多于7%,占16岁以上学生大约18%)。大约10%的英国独立学校是公学,一般而言拥有悠久历史和传统、及作为校长会议成员学校[1]。

公学(英文:public school)指英国的私立精英学校。公学虽然称为“public school”,却不表示是由政府设立的,只是表示学校可以公开招生,而不只限于特定宗教、种族或地区的学生。时至今日,历史悠久的英国公学培养出来的学生大多是英国各领域的精英,但是学费昂贵,一般人是无法负担的。

The public school refers to a group of older, more expensive and exclusive fee-paying private independent schools in the United Kingdom, particularly in England, which cater primarily for children aged between 13 and 18. Traditionally, these were boys’ boarding schools, although most now allow day pupils and many have turned either partially or fully co-educational. They emerged from charity schools established to educate poor scholars, the term “public” being used to indicate that access to them was not restricted on the basis of religion, occupation, or home location, and that they were subject to public management or control, in contrast to private schools which were run for the personal profit of the proprietors.

1886年的《公学年鉴》列出了25所公学:
贝德弗得学校(Bedford School)
布莱菲尔德学校(Bradfield School)
布莱顿公学(Brighton College)
切特豪斯学校(Charterhouse School)
切尔滕纳姆学院(Cheltenham College)
基督公学(Christ’s Hospital School
克利弗顿学院(Clifton College
多佛学院(Dover College
德威学院(Dulwich College
伊顿公学(Eton College
黑利伯瑞学院(Haileybury College
哈罗公学(Harrow School
兰西学院(Lancing College
Malvern St. James College
马尔巴罗公学(Marlborough College
Radley College
莱普顿学校(Repton School
罗萨尔学校(Rossall School
拉格比学校(Rugby School
谢伯恩学校(Sherborne School
什鲁斯伯里学校(Shrewsbury School
Tonbridge School
Uppingham School
威灵顿公学(Wellington College
威斯敏斯特学校(Westminster School
温切斯特公学(Winchester College

UK Degrees英国教育文凭一览

1.中学毕业考试 General Certificate Secondary Education (GCSE)
英国学生一般16岁时参加考试,获得中学文凭。之后学生分流,继续深造的进入A-Level的预科学习;准备就业的则进入职业培训学校。课程每年二月、九月开学。

2.高级水平考试 Advanced Level (A-Level)
准备进大学深造的学生通过GCSE后,进入大学预科班,经过两年的学习,通过了A-Level,即可申请大学。A-Level是中学和大学的衔接课程,其考试成绩也是从中学升入大学的考核标准。该课程每年二月、九月开学。

3.大学预科文凭International Foundation Diploma (IFD)
部分大学设有该课程。本课程针对不能直接进入学士学位学习的海外留学生所开设。它可作为任何英国大学的学士学位学习的准备课程。完成该课程,可直接升入大专或本科的学习。

4.高级国家文凭Higher National Diploma (HND)
相当于我国的大专文凭。念完后即取得高级国家文凭。如需要,可直接升入本科最后一年学习,并取得学士学位。该课程学制两年或三年(含一年实习时间)。每年二月、九月开学。

5.学士学位Bachelor Degree
学制通常三年,如果是含实习期的夹心课程则为四年。 苏格兰为四年。

6.研究生文凭Postgraduate Diploma (PG Dip)
部分学校和专业设有该课程。该课程介于本科到硕士之间,学制一年,完成后即可获得文凭,也可直接升入硕士课程学习,并取得硕士学位。

7.硕士学位 Master Degree
学制通常一年,可能有半年毕业设计时间。另外,部分学校还设有Pre-Master的课程,作为硕士课程的准备,学时为半年,之后可直接升入硕士的学习。

8.博士学位Ph.D 学制视具体课题而定,一般时间二至三年,申请成功很大程度上取决于联系大学的导师和研究的课题。

UK Degrees

1.General Certificate Secondary Education (GCSE)

2. Advanced Level (A-Level)

3.International Foundation Diploma (IFD)

4.Higher National Diploma (HND)

5.Bachelor Degree

6.Postgraduate Diploma (PG Dip)

7. Master Degree

8.Ph.D

英国教育体系

英国政府为全国5-16岁的学生提供强制教育。离校的最低年龄是16岁,一般学生在离校前会报考普通中学教育文凭试(GCSE)。学生在取得GCSE文凭后,可以选择就业或升读A-Level课程。 A-Level课程学制为2年,A-Level考试成绩为英国大学的入学录取标准。

英国教育系统包括两个独立的课程系统,资格是相互兼容的。一个系统由英格兰、威尔士和北爱尔兰组成,而另一个系统就是在苏格兰实现。

英国教育体系有以下级别:

学前及小学教育
在学校层面上有两种类型的学校,是公立学校和独立 /私立学校。学前教育一般为3至4岁儿童;小学教育主要为 5至11岁儿童提供教育。

中学教育
英国的中学一般分为公立学校(State Schools)和私立学校(Private Schools),公立学校留学费用相对低廉且课程选择较为丰富,而私立学校展现的是个性化的教育和优质的升学服务。公立学校通常不接收年龄十六岁以下的海外学生。此外,还有约二千五百多所的私立中学,为年约十三岁或以上的学生提供中学课程。大部分私立中学均设有学生宿舍,经费来自学费和捐款。

离校的最低年龄是16岁,一般学生在离校前会报考普通中学教育文凭试(GCSE)。学生在取得GCSE文凭后,可以选择就业或升读A-Level课程。 A-Level课程学制为2年,A-Level考试成绩为英国大学的入学录取标准。

GCSE
GCSE(General Certificate of Secondary Education)一般指英国中学教育的最后两年(10及11年级)的义务教育课程,学生根据自己的能力可以修读5-10科课程,学生读完这两年课程后将参加GCSE考试,从而凭GCSE的成绩申请A-Level课程。香港学生一般可以在完成初中后申请入读GCSE课程。

A-Level
A-Level(General Certificate of Education Advanced Level)是学生进入大学前的准备课程,为期2年,第一年称AS Level,第二年称A Level或A2。学生在第一年(AS)时可以根据自己的兴趣爱好,并结合以后的专业申请方向选择4-5科课程学习,第二年(A2)时可以将重点集中在自己的强项课程,选择其中的3或4科课程学习,从而参加A-Level考试。 A-Level考试成绩是英国大学的入学录取标准,英国大学一般只要求3科A-Level课程的成绩。

Pre A-Level
为帮助海外学生顺利平稳的过渡到英国A-Level课程的学习,一些英国的中学(主要是私立学校)开设有Pre A-Level(A-Level的预备课程)。该课程主要为英语学习及部分A-Level课程,适合初中毕业生或成绩较弱的高一学生申请,学生大部分是来自海外。

学士学位
学士学位通常由大学和高等教育学院提供。一般课程为期三年,苏格兰的课程一般为期 4年。

英国共有一百多所大学,都是公立的大学。英国的本科荣誉学士学位课程学制一般为三年,三文治课程(Sandwich course)则需四年,苏格兰的荣誉学士学位课程亦须修读四年,医学一般需要五年。英国的院校共设置有超过五千门不同科目的本科课程。申请本科课程的学生需要向大学学院入学申请中心(UCAS)进行申请。

英国的本科课程除了普通的荣誉学士学位课程(Bachelor Hons Degree)外,还有联合荣誉学士学位课程(Joint Hons Degree)、三文治课程(Sandwich Course)和出国学位课程(Year Three Abroad)。

英国研究生教育
英国的研究生课程一般可以分为硕士与博士两种,而硕士课程又分为两种— 授课式课程和研究式课程。

授课式硕士课程一般学制为一年,申请人必须具有本科学士学位或相关的专业资格,未符合此要求的申请人一般需要先修读一年的硕士预科课程或插读本科取得本科学士学位后再申请硕士课程。研究式硕士课程学制一般为1至2年,主要是做研究,常见的研究式硕士学位有两年制的MPhil和一年制的MRes。

博士课程至少需要三年的时间来完成,以获得博士学位。

EDUCATION SYSTEM IN THE UK

Across the UK there are five stages of education: early years, primary, secondary, Further Education (FE) and Higher Education (HE). Education is compulsory for all children between the ages of 5 (4 in Northern Ireland) and 16. FE is not compulsory and covers non-advanced education which can be taken at further (including tertiary) education colleges and HE institutions (HEIs). The fifth stage, HE, is study beyond GCE A levels and their equivalent which, for most full-time students, takes place in universities and other HEIs and colleges.

Early Years Education

In England since September 2010, all three and four year olds are entitled to 15 hours of free nursery education for 38 weeks of the year. Early Years education takes place in a variety of settings including state nursery schools, nursery classes and reception classes within primary schools, as well as settings outside the state sector such as voluntary pre-schools, privately run nurseries or childminders. In recent years there has been a major expansion of Early Years education and childcare. The Education Act 2002 extended the National Curriculum for England to include the Foundation Stage which was first introduced in September 2000, and
covered children’s education from the age of 3 to the end of the reception year, when
children are aged 5. The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) came into force in September 2008, and is a single regulatory and quality framework for the provision of learning, development and care for children in all registered early years settings between birth and the academic year in which they turn 5. The EYFS Profile
(EYFSP) is the statutory assessment of each child’s development and learning
achievements at the end of the academic year in which they turn 5.

In Wales, children are entitled to a free part-time place the term following a child’s third birthday until they enter statutory education. These places can be in a maintained school or a non-maintained setting such as a voluntary playgroup, private nursery or childminder which is approved to provide education. The Foundation Phase is a holistic developmental curriculum for 3 to 7-year-olds based on the needs of the individual child to meet their stage of development. Statutory rollout of the Foundation Phase framework started in September 2008 and the process was completed in the 2011/12 school year.

In Scotland, education typically starts with pre-school. Local authorities have a duty to secure a part-time funded place for every child starting from the beginning of the school term after the child’s third birthday. Pre-school education can be provided by local authority centres, or private and voluntary providers under a partnership arrangement. In Scotland, early years education is called ante-pre-school education for those who are start receiving their pre-school education in the academic year
after their 3rd birthday until the end of that academic year (note: depending on when the child turned 3 years of age, some children may only receive part of an academic year’s worth of ante-pre-school education (e.g. 1 term), whereas other children may receive an entire academic year of pre-school education). All children are entitled to receive a full academic year’s worth of pre-school education in the academic year before they are eligible to, and expected to, start primary school.

The commitment in the Northern Ireland Executive’s Programme for Government is to ‘ensure that at least one year of pre-school education is available to every family that wants it.’ Funded pre-school places are available in statutory nursery schools and units and in those voluntary and private settings participating in the Pre-School Education Expansion Programme (PSEEP). Places in the voluntary/private sector
are part-time whilst, in the statutory nursery sector, both full-time and part-time places are available. Pre-school education is designed for children in the year immediately before they enter Primary 1. Taking into account the starting age for compulsory education in Northern Ireland this means children are aged between 3 years 2 months and 4 years 2 months in the September in which they enter their final pre-school year. The Programme incorporates a number of features designed to promote high quality pre-school education provision in all settings including a curriculum which is common to all those involved in pre-school education

Primary

The primary stage covers three age ranges: nursery (under 5), infant (5 to 7 or 8) (Key Stage 1) and junior (up to 11 or 12) (Key Stage 2) but in Scotland and Northern Ireland there is generally no distinction between infant and junior schools. In Wales, although the types of school are the same, the Foundation Phase has brought together what was previously known as the Early Years (from 3 to 5-year-olds) and Key Stage 1 (from 5 to 7-year-olds) of the National Curriculum to create one phase of education for children aged between three and seven. In England, primary schools generally cater for 4-11 year olds. Some primary schools may have a nursery or a children’s centre attached to cater for younger children. Most public sector primary schools take both boys and girls in mixed classes. It is usual to transfer straight to secondary school at age 11 (in England, Wales and Northern Ireland) or 12 (in Scotland), but in England some children make the transition via middle schools catering for various age ranges between 8 and 14. Depending on their individual age ranges middle schools are classified as either primary or secondary.

The major goals of primary education are achieving basic literacy and numeracy amongst all pupils, as well as establishing foundations in science, mathematics and other subjects. Children in England and Northern Ireland are assessed at the end of Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2. In Wales, all learners in their final year of Foundation Phase and Key Stage 2 must be assessed through teacher assessments.

Secondary

In England, public provision of secondary education in an area may consist of a combination of different types of school, the pattern reflecting historical circumstance and the policy adopted by the local authority. Comprehensive schools largely admit pupils without reference to ability or aptitude and cater for all the children in a neighbourhood, but in some areas they co-exist with other types of schools, for example grammar schools. Academies, operating in England, are publicly funded independent schools. Academies benefit from greater freedoms to help innovate and raise standards. These include freedom from local authority control, the ability to set their own pay and conditions for staff, freedom around the delivery of the curriculum and the ability to change the lengths of terms and school days. The Academies Programme was first introduced in March 2000 with the objective of replacing poorly performing schools. Academies were established and driven by external sponsors, to achieve a transformation in education performance. The Academies Programme was expanded through legislation in the Academies Act 2010. This enables all maintained primary, secondary and special schools to apply to become an Academy. The early focus is on schools rated outstanding by Ofsted and the first of these new academies opened in September 2010. These schools do not have a sponsor but instead are expected to work with underperforming schools to help raise standards.

In Wales, secondary schools take pupils at 11 years old until statutory school age and beyond.
Education authority secondary schools in Scotland are comprehensive in character and offer six years of secondary education; however, in remote areas there are several two-year and four-year secondary schools.

In Northern Ireland, post-primary education consists of 5 compulsory years and two further years if students wish to remain in school to pursue post GCSE / Level 2 courses to Level 3. Ministerial policy is that transfer should be on the basis of non- academic criteria, however legally post primary schools can still admit pupils based on academic performance.

At the end of this stage of education, pupils are normally entered for a range of external examinations. Most frequently, these are GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and Standard Grades in Scotland, although a range of other qualifications are available. In Scotland pupils study for the National Qualifications (NQ) Standard grade (a two-year course leading to examinations at the end of the fourth year of secondary schooling) and NQ Higher grade, which requires at least a further year of secondary schooling. From 1999/00 additional new NQ were introduced in Scotland to allow greater flexibility and choice
in the Scottish examination system. NQ include Intermediate 1 & 2 designed primarily for candidates in the fifth and sixth year of secondary schooling, however these are
used in some schools as an alternative to Standard Grades.

Further Education

Further education may be used in a general sense to cover all non-advanced courses taken after the period of compulsory education. It is post-compulsory education (in addition to that received at secondary school), that is distinct from the education offered in universities (higher education). It may be at any level from basic skills training to higher vocational education such as City and Guilds or Foundation Degree.

A distinction is usually made between FE and higher education (HE). HE is education at a higher level than secondary school. This is usually provided in distinct institutions such as universities. FE in the United Kingdom therefore includes education for people over 16, usually excluding universities. It is primarily taught in FE colleges, work-based learning, and adult and community learning institutions. This includes
post-16 courses similar to those taught at schools and sub-degree courses similar to those taught at higher education (HE) colleges (which also teach degree-level courses) and at some universities.

Colleges in England that are regarded as part of the FE sector include General FE (GFE) and tertiary colleges, Sixth form colleges, Specialist colleges (mainly colleges of agriculture and horticulture and colleges of drama and dance) and Adult education institutes.

In addition, FE courses may be offered in the school sector, both in sixth form (16-19)
schools, or, more commonly, sixth forms within secondary schools.

In England, further education is often seen as forming one part of a wider learning and skills sector, alongside workplace education, prison education, and other types of non-school, non-university education and training. Since June 2009, the sector is
overseen by the new Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, although some parts (such as education and training for 14-19 year olds) fall within the remit of the
Department for Education.
Higher Education

Higher education is defined as courses that are of a standard that is higher than GCE A level, the Higher Grade of the SCE/National Qualification, GNVQ/NVQ level 3 or
the Edexcel (formerly BTEC) or SQA National Certificate/Diploma. There are three main levels of HE course:

(i) Postgraduate courses leading to higher degrees, diplomas and certificates (including Doctorate, Masters (research and taught), Postgraduate diplomas and certificates as well as postgraduate certificates of education (PGCE) and professional qualifications) which usually require a first degree as entry qualification.
(ii) Undergraduate courses which include first degrees (honours and ordinary), first degrees with qualified teacher status, enhanced first degrees, first degrees obtained concurrently with a diploma, and intercalated first degrees (where first degree students, usually in medicine, dentistry or veterinary medicine, interrupt their studies to complete a one-year course of advanced studies in a related topic).
(iii) Other undergraduate courses which include all other higher education courses, for example SVQ or NVQ: Level 5, Diploma (HNC/D level for diploma and degree
holders), HND (or equivalent), HNC (or equivalent) and SVQ or NVQ: Level 4 and
Diplomas in HE.

As a result of the Further and Higher Education Act 1992, former polytechnics and some other HEIs were designated as universities in 1992/93. Students normally attend HE courses at HEIs, but some attend at FE colleges.