本翻译为方便在英人士了解英国道路法规所用,仅供参考。

所引链接为编辑时 www.gov.uk 所用链接,非实时更新。

如有不当之处,欢迎指正。

 

General rules, techniques and advice for all drivers and riders (103 to 158)
关于所有司机与骑手的通用规则、技术和建议(103-158)

 

The Highway Code general rules, techniques and advice for all drivers and riders, including signals, stopping procedures, lighting requirements, control of the vehicle, speed limits, stopping distances, lines and lane markings, multi-lane carriageways and general advice.

 

 

This section should be read by all drivers, motorcyclists, cyclists and horse riders. The rules in The Highway Code do not give you the right of way in any circumstance, but they advise you when you should give way to others. Always give way if it can help to avoid an incident.

所有汽车司机、摩托车骑行者、自行车骑行者和骑马者都应当熟读此节。公路法规汇编中的规则并非是给予某人以某种情况下的路权,而是建议在某种情况下你应该为别人让路。只要能有助于避免交通事故,应尽量给别人让路。

 

Signals (rules 103 to 106) 信号(规则 103 to 106)

 

103. Signals warn and inform other road users, including pedestrians (see ‘Signals to other road users), of your intended actions. You should always

· give clear signals in plenty of time, having checked it is not misleading to signal at that time
· use them to advise other road users before changing course or direction, stopping or moving off
· cancel them after use
· make sure your signals will not confuse others. If, for instance, you want to stop after a side road, do not signal until you are passing the road. If you signal earlier it may give the impression that you intend to turn into the road. Your brake lights will warn traffic behind you that you are slowing down
·use an arm signal to emphasise or reinforce your signal if necessary. Remember that signalling does not give you priority.

103. 信号的作用是向包括行人在内的其他道路使用者警示或者告知你下一步的动作。你始终应该:
· 确定不会造成误解之后,提前足够长的时间给出清晰的信号;
· 变道、转向、停车及离开道路之前,先给出信号告知其他道路使用者;
· 做完相应的动作之后,取消信号;
· 确保你给出的信号不会造成其他人的误解。例如,当你想在经过路口之后靠边停车,不能太早,在靠近路口之前,给出信号,否则其他人会认为你要转弯进入支路。刹车灯会警示后方车辆你将减速。
· 如果有必要强调或者加强信号,可以使用手势信号。记住,使用信号,不会给予你道路的优先权。

 

104. You should also

· watch out for signals given by other road users and proceed only when you are satisfied that it is safe
· be aware that an indicator on another vehicle may not have been cancelled.

104. 同时,你也应该:
· 注意其他道路使用者给出的信号。只有当你确定安全时,才能继续前行。
· 注意其他车辆闪烁的指示灯有可能仅仅是司机忘记取消了。

 

105. You MUST obey signals given by police officers, traffic officers, traffic wardens (see ‘Signals by authorised persons’) and signs used by school crossing patrols.

105. 你必须服从警务人员、交管人员、交通督导和学校横道巡逻员给出的信号

Laws RTRA sect 28RTA 1988 sect 35TMA sect 6 & FTWO art 3

 

106. Police stopping procedures. If the police want to stop your vehicle they will, where possible, attract your attention by

· flashing blue lights, headlights or sounding their siren or horn, usually from behind
· directing you to pull over to the side by pointing and/or using the left indicator.
You MUST then pull over and stop as soon as it is safe to do so. Then switch off your engine.

106. 警察指令停车流程。如果警察想命令你停车,只要境况允许,他会按以下的方式吸引你的注意:
· 通常先跟随你行驶,闪烁蓝色警灯和前照灯,拉响警笛或鸣喇叭;
· 通过手指向路边,和/或使用左转指示灯的方式,引导你停到路边。
当遇到警察给你停车指令时,只要安全情况允许,你必须立刻停到路边,然后熄火。

Law RTA 1988 sect 163

 

Other stopping procedures (rules 107 to 112) 其他停车流程(107-112)

 

107. Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency officers have powers to stop vehicles on all roads, including motorways and trunk roads, in England and Wales. They will attract your attention by flashing amber lights

· either from the front requesting you to follow them to a safe place to stop
· or from behind directing you to pull over to the side by pointing and/or using the left indicator.
It is an offence not to comply with their directions. You MUST obey any signals given (see ‘Signals by authorised persons’’).

107. 司机与车辆管理局(DVSA,注:英国的驾驶员及车辆管理机构,主要业务是驾考,管理车辆的技术状态,如营运车辆管理、车辆年检、报废等)有权拦停行驶在英格兰与威尔士任何道路,包括高速公路(M)与主干道路(A)上的车辆。他们会以闪烁的琥珀色警灯吸引你的注意,然后:
· 从前方示意跟随其行驶至安全地带停车;
· 或者从后方通过手指路边,和/或使用左转信号灯的方式引导你停到路边。

不服从引导是违法行为,你必须服从指令。

Laws RTA 1988 sect 67, & PRA sect 41 & sched 5(8)

 

108. Traffic officers have powers to stop vehicles on most motorways and some ‘A’ class roads, in England only. If traffic officers in uniform want to stop your vehicle on safety grounds (e.g. an insecure load) they will, where possible, attract your attention by

· flashing amber lights, usually from behind
· directing you to pull over to the side by pointing and/or using the left indicator.
You MUST then pull over and stop as soon as it is safe to do so. Then switch off your engine. It is an offence not to comply with their directions (see ‘Signals by authorised persons’’).

108. 在英格兰(只有英格兰),高速公路管理人员有权拦停绝大多数高速公路和部分A级公路上行驶的车辆。如果穿制服的高速公路管理人员鉴于安全理由(例如,载货未固定等)需要拦停你的车辆,他们会以下面的方式来吸引你的注意:
· 通常是跟随在你的车后,闪烁琥珀色警灯;
· 通过手指路边和/或使用左转灯的方式,引导你停靠在路边。
必须听从指令,在安全的情况下尽快停靠到路边,然后熄火。不遵守高速公路管理人员的指令是违法行为。

Law RTA 1988 sects 35 & 163 as amended by TMA sect 6

 

109. Traffic light signals and traffic signs. You MUST obey all traffic light signals (see ‘Light signals controlling traffic’) and traffic signs giving orders, including temporary signals & signs (see ‘Traffic signs’). Make sure you know, understand and act on all other traffic and information signs and road markings (see ‘Traffic signs’, ‘Road markings’ and ‘Vehicle markings’).

109. 交通信号灯和交通信号。你必须遵守所有法定交通信号灯和交通信号的指挥,包括临时设立的信号在内。请确保你已经知晓、理解并执行其他的交通或信息信号以及路面标记。

Laws RTA 1988 sect 36 & TSRGD regs 10151625262728, 293638 & 40

 

110. Flashing headlights. Only flash your headlights to let other road users know that you are there. Do not flash your headlights to convey any other message or intimidate other road users.

110. 闪烁前照灯。只有在需要告知其他道路使用者你的车辆接近的情况下,才闪烁前照灯。不要尝试通过闪烁前照灯来传递其他信息或是恐吓其他道路使用者。

 

111. Never assume that flashing headlights is a signal inviting you to proceed. Use your own judgement and proceed carefully.

111. 千万不要假定对方闪烁前灯是邀你前行的信号(注:英国民间基本默认闪烁前灯是许可对方通过的信号,跟中国民间的操作相反。但是这只是一个习惯,并不能因此确定责任。)。依靠自己判断,小心前行。

 

112. The horn. Use only while your vehicle is moving and you need to warn other road users of your presence. Never sound your horn aggressively. You MUST NOT use your horn.

· while stationary on the road
· when driving in a built-up area between the hours of 11.30 pm and 7.00 am
except when another road user poses a danger.

112. 鸣笛。鸣笛这一手段只有当车辆持续行进时,需要警示其他道路使用者你车辆出现的情况下使用。千万不要滥用鸣笛。在以下的情况下不准使用笛声:
· 在道路上未行驶时;
· 夜间11点半至早上7点,行驶在居民区时;
除非此时其他道路使用对你者构成危险。

Law CUR reg 99

 

Lighting requirements (rules 113 to 116) 灯光使用要求(113-116)

 

113. You MUST

· ensure all sidelights and rear registration plate lights are lit between sunset and sunrise
· use headlights at night, except on a road which has lit street lighting. These roads are generally restricted to a speed limit of 30 mph (48 km/h) unless otherwise specified
· use headlights when visibility is seriously reduced (see Rule 226).
Night (the hours of darkness) is defined as the period between half an hour after sunset and half an hour before sunrise.

113. 你必须
· 日落之后到日出之前,确保所有示廓灯、后牌照灯点亮;
· 在夜间打开前照灯。除非行驶在限速30MPH(48km/h)或其他特定限速,且路灯照明良好的道路上。
· 当光线严重不良时打开前照灯;

“夜间(黑暗时分)”定义为日落后半小时至日出前半小时这一时段。

Laws RVLR regs 324 & 25 (In Scotland – RTRA sect 82 (as amended byNRSWA, para 59 of sched 8)

 

114. You MUST NOT

· use any lights in a way which would dazzle or cause discomfort to other road users, including pedestrians, cyclists and horse riders
· use front or rear fog lights unless visibility is seriously reduced. You MUST switch them off when visibility improves to avoid dazzling other road users (see Rule 226).
In stationary queues of traffic, drivers should apply the parking brake and, once the following traffic has stopped, take their foot off the footbrake to deactivate the vehicle brake lights. This will minimise glare to road users behind until the traffic moves again.

114. 你不得
· 用任何方式造成其他道路使用者目眩或其他不适。其他道路使用者也包括行人、自行车骑行者和骑马者;
· 在光线良好的条件下使用前雾灯或后雾灯。当光线转好时,你必须即刻关闭前后雾灯,避免造成其他道路使用者目眩。

在塞车排队时,司机应当使用停车制动,当后面的车辆停下来,脚离开脚刹,使车灯熄灭。到交通再次移动前,这将最大限度地减少眩光对后方道路使用者影响。

Law RVLR reg 27

 

115. You should also

· use dipped headlights, or dim-dip if fitted, at night in built-up areas and in dull daytime weather, to ensure that you can be seen
· keep your headlights dipped when overtaking until you are level with the other vehicle and then change to main beam if necessary, unless this would dazzle oncoming road users
· slow down, and if necessary stop, if you are dazzled by oncoming headlights.

115. 你还应当:
· 夜间或昼间光线不佳条件下在居民区行驶时,打开前照灯近光,以确保你被其他人看到。
· 超越前车,与前车齐平前使用近光,齐平后继续超越,除非会对向来车造成目眩,之后有必要就切换主灯。
· 如果被对向来车远光晃眩,请减速,必要时停车。

 

116. Hazard warning lights. These may be used when your vehicle is stationary, to warn that it is temporarily obstructing traffic. Never use them as an excuse for dangerous or illegal parking. You MUST NOT use hazard warning lights while driving or being towed unless you are on a motorway or unrestricted dual carriageway and you need to warn drivers behind you of a hazard or obstruction ahead. Only use them for long enough to ensure that your warning has been observed.

116. 危险警示灯。当你停靠在路边时可以使用危险警示灯,警告后方来车道路上有临时性障碍物。千万不要把危险警示灯当成危险或者非法停车的借口。在车辆行驶或被拖曳途中不得使用危险警示灯,除非是行驶在高速公路或无限制复式公路上,需要警告后方司机前方存在的道路阻塞等危险时。在使用警示灯前,要确保距离后车有足够距离,以便后方车辆都能看到你的警示。

Law RVLR reg 27

 

Control of the vehicle (rules 117 to 126) 车辆控制(117-126)

 

Braking 刹车

 

117. In normal circumstances. The safest way to brake is to do so early and lightly. Brake more firmly as you begin to stop. Ease the pressure off just before the vehicle comes to rest to avoid a jerky stop.

117. 在一般情况下。最安全的刹车方式,就是及早刹车,轻柔刹车。刹车前段踩踏板应坚决踩实,而到了车即将完全停止的时候应放开踏板,避免出现点头(Jerky stop)。

 

118. In an emergency. Brake immediately. Try to avoid braking so harshly that you lock your wheels. Locked wheels can lead to loss of control.

118. 紧急情况。立刻刹车。当然不要刹车太猛而导致轮胎抱死。轮胎抱死会导致车辆失控。

 

119. Skids. Skidding is usually caused by the driver braking, accelerating or steering too harshly or driving too fast for the road conditions. If skidding occurs, remove the cause by releasing the brake pedal fully or easing off the accelerator. Turn the steering wheel in the direction of the skid. For example, if the rear of the vehicle skids to the right, steer immediately to the right to recover.

119. 侧滑。侧滑通常是由司机刹车、加速、打方向过猛,或者对于现场路况而言速度太高而引起的。如果发生了侧滑,首先应完全松开刹车或油门踏板,以消除侧滑的原因。然后向发生侧滑的一侧打方向。例如,当车辆后轮向右侧打滑,要立即向右打方向以恢复控制

Rear of the car skids to the right. Driver steers to the right

Rear of the car skids to the right. Driver steers to the right

 

120. ABS. If your vehicle is fitted with anti-lock brakes, you should follow the advice given in the vehicle handbook. However, in the case of an emergency, apply the footbrake firmly; do not release the pressure until the vehicle has slowed to the desired speed. The ABS should ensure that steering control will be retained, but do not assume that a vehicle with ABS will stop in a shorter distance.

120. ABS。如果你的车辆安装了防抱死系统,你应当仔细阅读车辆说明书内给予的建议并按此建议驾驶。但是,在紧急情况下,你应该用力踩下刹车踏板不放,直到车辆减速到期望的范围。ABS能保证刹车的时候还能获得方向控制,但是不要以为装有ABS的车辆能在更短的距离内刹停。

 

121. Brakes affected by water. If you have driven through deep water your brakes may be less effective. Test them at the first safe opportunity by pushing gently on the brake pedal to make sure that they work. If they are not fully effective, gently apply light pressure while driving slowly. This will help to dry them out.

121. 水对刹车的影响。驶过较深的水域后,你的车辆刹车可能会一定程度上失效。确保安全的情况下,第一时间就应轻踩刹车踏板来测试刹车是否有效工作。如果刹车不怎么有效,可以保持轻踩刹车持续低速行驶。这样有助于干燥刹车系统。

 

122. Coasting. This term describes a vehicle travelling in neutral or with the clutch pressed down. It can reduce driver control because

· engine braking is eliminated
· vehicle speed downhill will increase quickly
· increased use of the footbrake can reduce its effectiveness
· steering response will be affected, particularly on bends and corners
· it may be more difficult to select the appropriate gear when needed.

122. 滑行(Coasting)。滑行就是说车辆在挂空挡或者踩下离合器的情况下行驶。这样做会弱化司机对车的控制,因为:
· 发动机刹车消失;
· 下坡时车速会迅速上升;
· 长时间使用脚刹,会降低刹车的效能;
· 方向响应会受影响,尤其是在急弯或街角处;
· 当需要换挡的时候,可能难以选择合适的档位。

 

123. The Driver and the Environment. You MUST NOT leave a parked vehicle unattended with the engine running or leave a vehicle engine running unnecessarily while that vehicle is stationary on a public road. Generally, if the vehicle is stationary and is likely to remain so for more than a couple of minutes, you should apply the parking brake and switch off the engine to reduce emissions and noise pollution. However it is permissible to leave the engine running if the vehicle is stationary in traffic or for diagnosing faults.
123. 司机和环境。司机不得未熄火就停放车辆离车;行驶在公众道路上处于静止状态时不得任发动机无必要地运转。一般来说,虽然车辆在道路上静止时,或者为了诊断故障时不熄火并非违法事项,但是还是建议当车辆静止,而且此静止状态预计将超过2分钟时,熄火并拉起手刹。这样有助于减少排放和噪音带来的污染。然而,当汽车处于运行中或用于诊断故障时,是允许司机离开让发动机运转的。

Law CUR regs 98 & 107

 

Speed Limit 速度限制

Speed Limits Built-up areas* Single carriageways Dual carriageways Motorways
Type of vehicle mph (km/h) mph (km/h) mph (km/h) mph (km/h)
Cars & motorcycles (including car derived vans up to 2 tonnes maximum laden weight) 30 (48) 60 (96) 70 (112) 70 (112)
Cars towing caravans or trailers (including car derived vans and motorcycles) 30 (48) 50 (80) 60 (96) 60 (96)
Buses, coaches and minibuses (not exceeding 12 metres in overall length) 30 (48) 50 (80) 60 (96) 70 (112)
Goods vehicles (not exceeding 7.5 tonnes maximum laden weight) 30 (48) 50 (80) 60 (96) 70† (112)
Goods vehicles (exceeding 7.5 tonnes maximum laden weight) in England and Wales 30 (48) 50 (80) 60 (96) 60 (96)
Goods vehicles (exceeding 7.5 tonnes maximum laden weight) in Scotland 30 (48) 40 (64) 50 (80) 60 (96)

*The 30 mph limit usually applies to all traffic on all roads with street lighting unless signs show otherwise.

†60 mph (96 km/h) if articulated or towing a trailer.

限度速制 建筑区/城镇区域* (无中间隔离带的)单式公路
    (有隔离带的)复式公路
高速公路
车辆类型 英里每时 (千米每时) 英里每时 (千米每时) 英里每时 (千米每时) 英里每时 (千米每时)
汽车及摩托车(包括最高载重量不超过2吨的小货车(car derived vans )) 30 (48) 60 (96) 70 (112) 70 (112)
汽车牵引大篷车或挂车(包括小货车(car derived vans )和摩托车) 30 (48) 50 (80) 60 (96) 60 (96)
公共汽车,长途汽车和小巴(总长度不超过12米) 30 (48) 50 (80) 60 (96) 70 (112)
货车 (最高载重量不超过7.5吨) 30 (48) 50 (80) 60 (96) 70† (112)
货车 (最高载重量不超过7.5吨) 在英格兰和威尔士 30 (48) 50 (80) 60 (96) 60 (96)
货车 (最高载重量不超过7.5吨) 在苏格兰 30 (48) 40 (64) 50 (80) 60 (96)

*30英里限速通常适用于所有有路灯照明的道路

†如果挂接或牵引拖车,限速60英里每小时(96公里/小时)。

124. You MUST NOT exceed the maximum speed limits for the road and for your vehicle (see the speed limits table). The presence of street lights generally means that there is a 30 mph (48 km/h) speed limit unless otherwise specified.

124. 你不得超过道路及车辆允许的最高限速。街道两侧出现路灯,通常意味着30mph(48km/h)的限速,除非有特殊说明。

Law RTRA sects 818689 & sched 6 as amended by MV(VSL)(E&W)

 

125. The speed limit is the absolute maximum and does not mean it is safe to drive at that speed irrespective of conditions. Driving at speeds too fast for the road and traffic conditions is dangerous. You should always reduce your speed when

· the road layout or condition presents hazards, such as bends
· sharing the road with pedestrians, cyclists and horse riders, particularly children, and motorcyclists
· weather conditions make it safer to do so
· driving at night as it is more difficult to see other road users.

125. 限速是道路上允许的绝对最大值,并不意味着无视路况按这个速度行驶都是安全的。超越路况与交通情况允许行驶过快十分危险。当出现以下情况时,你应该减低速度:
· 道路的布局和路况导致的危险情况,例如急弯;
· 与行人、自行车或者马匹混行的道路,特别是有儿童和摩托车的道路;
· 天气条件恶劣,低速行驶更安全;
· 夜间行驶,因为难以发现其他道路使用者。

 

126.

Highway code126

Download ‘Typical stopping distances’ (PDF, 124KB)

Stopping Distances. Drive at a speed that will allow you to stop well within the distance you can see to be clear. You should

· leave enough space between you and the vehicle in front so that you can pull up safely if it suddenly slows down or stops. The safe rule is never to get closer than the overall stopping distance (see Typical Stopping Distances diagram, shown above)
· allow at least a two-second gap between you and the vehicle in front on roads carrying faster-moving traffic and in tunnels where visibility is reduced. The gap should be at least doubled on wet roads and increased still further on icy roads
· remember, large vehicles and motorcycles need a greater distance to stop. If driving a large vehicle in a tunnel, you should allow a four-second gap between you and the vehicle in front.
If you have to stop in a tunnel, leave at least a 5-metre gap between you and the vehicle in front.

126. 停车距离。应该以允许安全停车的速度与车距行驶。你应当:
· 与前车之间保持足够的距离,这样当前车突然减速或停车的时候你也能安全停住。跟车距离绝对不要少于车型的总刹车距离。(见上图所示典型停车距离图)
· 在车流与视线不佳的隧道中,与前车之间保持至少2秒的行驶距离。在潮湿路面上,距离应当加倍,冰雪路面则需保持更长距离。
· 记住,大型车辆和摩托车需要更长的距离才能停下来。如果在隧道中驾驶大型车辆,你至少要与前车保持至少4秒的行驶距离。
· 如果被迫在隧道中停车,应当与前车保持至少5m的距离

Use a fixed point to help measure a two-second gap

Use a fixed point to help measure a two-second gap

 

Lines and lane markings on the road (rules 127 to 132) 道路上的线条和车道标志(127-132)

 

See ‘Road markings’ to see diagrams of all lines.

 

127. A broken white line. This marks the centre of the road. When this line lengthens and the gaps shorten, it means that there is a hazard ahead. Do not cross it unless you can see the road is clear and wish to overtake or turn off.

127. 白虚线。白虚线用作道路的中间线。当白虚线线段变长,线段间隔变短时,表示前方道路存在危险。此时除了在路况允许时超车或者掉头之外,不要跨越中间线。

 

128. Double white lines where the line nearest to you is broken. This means you may cross the lines to overtake if it is safe, provided you can complete the manoeuvre before reaching a solid white line on your side. White direction arrows on the road indicate that you need to get back onto your side of the road.

128. 双白线,靠近你的一侧为虚线。表示在到达实线区域之前能安全完成超车的情况下,你可以跨越双白线超车。到达白实线区域前道路上白色的箭头会指示你尽快回到道路原侧。

 

129. Double white lines where the line nearest you is solid. This means you MUST NOT cross or straddle it unless it is safe and you need to enter adjoining premises or a side road. You may cross the line if necessary, provided the road is clear, to pass a stationary vehicle, or overtake a pedal cycle, horse or road maintenance vehicle, if they are travelling at 10 mph (16 km/h) or less.

129. 双白线,靠近你的一侧为实线。表示你不得越过或者跨在中心线行驶,除非是在保证安全的情况下需要进入临街物业或者支路。在需要绕过路边停放车辆,或者是需要超越道路上时速低于10mph(16km/h)的自行车、马匹或者是道路施工车辆时,如果道路安全条件允许,可以越过双白线行驶

Laws Laws  1988 sect 36 & TSRGD regs 10 & 26

 

130. Areas of white diagonal stripes or chevrons painted on the road. These are to separate traffic lanes or to protect traffic turning right.

· If the area is bordered by a broken white line, you should not enter the area unless it is necessary and you can see that it is safe to do so.
· If the area is marked with chevrons and bordered by solid white lines you MUST NOT enter it except in an emergency.

130. 白色斜条纹区域或者V型条纹区域,是用来分割车行道或者保护右转车辆的。
· 如果此区域外框为白虚线,没有必要不应进入;
· 如果此区域外框为白实线,除了紧急情况之外不得进入。

Laws MT(E&W)R regs 5910 & 16MT(S)R regs 489 & 14,RTA 1988 sect 36 & SRGD reg 10(1)

 

131. Lane dividers. These are short, broken white lines which are used on wide carriageways to divide them into lanes. You should keep between them.

131. 车道分隔线。白色的短虚线将较宽的公路分隔为若干车道。你应保持在分割线之间行驶。

 

132. Reflective road studs may be used with white lines.

· White studs mark the lanes or the middle of the road.
· Red studs mark the left edge of the road.
· Amber studs mark the central reservation of a dual carriageway or motorway.
· Green studs mark the edge of the main carriageway at lay-bys and slip roads.
· Green/yellow studs indicate temporary adjustments to lane layouts, e.g. where road works are taking place.

132. 反光道钉,可能同白线一同设置。
· 白色道钉指示车道或者道路中心。
· 红色道钉指示道路左边缘。
· 琥珀色道钉指示复式公路或高速公路的中间隔离带。
· 绿色道钉指示在港湾式停车带或者匝道处的主行车道边缘。
· 绿色/黄色道钉指示临时性的车道调整,例如发生道路施工时。

Highway code132

Reflective road studs mark the lanes and edge of the carriageway

 

Multi-lane carriageways (rules 133 to 143) 多车道公路(133-143)
Lane discipline 车道行为规范

 

133. If you need to change lane, first use your mirrors and if necessary take a quick sideways glance to make sure you will not force another road user to change course or speed. When it is safe to do so, signal to indicate your intentions to other road users and when clear, move over.

133. 如果你需要变换车道,首先应查看后视镜,必要时快速瞥一眼侧方,确保不会因你的机动而迫使其他车辆让道或让速。如果明确此时可以安全变道,使用信号灯,告知其他道路使用者你的意图,然后待路况允许时完成车道变换。

 

134. You should follow the signs and road markings and get into the lane as directed. In congested road conditions do not change lanes unnecessarily. Merging in turn is recommended but only if safe and appropriate when vehicles are travelling at a very low speed, e.g. when approaching road works or a road traffic incident. It is not recommended at high speed.

134. 你应当遵守车道上的信号与标志,按规定的方向进入车道。当道路条件比较拥挤时不要进行不必要的变道。当车辆行驶十分缓慢时,例如当接近道路施工或事故现场时,建议按次序逐辆汇流,但是前提是这样做安全且比较合适。不建议在车速较高时这么做。

 

Single carriageway 单式公路(无中间隔离带的公路)

 

135. Where a single carriageway has three lanes and the road markings or signs do not give priority to traffic in either direction

· use the middle lane only for overtaking or turning right. Remember, you have no more right to use the middle lane than a driver coming from the opposite direction
· do not use the right-hand lane.

135. 当一条单式公路有3条车道,且道路标志、信号没有给任何方向的车流以优先权时:
中间车道仅作为超车和右转时使用.记住,你并没有比对向来车更优先使用中间车道的权力;
不要使用右侧车道。

 

136. Where a single carriageway has four or more lanes, use only the lanes that signs or markings indicate.

136. 如果单式公路有四条或以上的车道,请按标志和信号指示的车道行进。

 

Dual carriageways 复式公路 (有中间隔离带的公路)

 

A dual carriageway is a road which has a central reservation to separate the carriageways.

复式公路就是有中央隔离带分隔对向车道的公路。

 

137. On a two-lane dual carriageway you should stay in the left-hand lane. Use the right-hand lane for overtaking or turning right. After overtaking, move back to the left-hand lane when it is safe to do so.

137. 在同向双车道的复式公路上,你应当保持在左侧车道行驶。右侧车道则是用来进行超车或者右转。在完成超车之后,应当选择一个安全的时机回到左侧车道。

 

138. On a three-lane dual carriageway, you may use the middle lane or the right-hand lane to overtake but return to the middle and then the left-hand lane when it is safe.

138. 在同向三车道的复式公路上,可以使用中间车道或右侧车道进行超车,但在安全的时机应回到中间车道,然后回到左侧车道。

 

139. Climbing and crawler lanes. These are provided on some hills. Use this lane if you are driving a slow-moving vehicle or if there are vehicles behind you wishing to overtake. Be aware of the signs and road markings which indicate the lane is about to end.

139. 爬坡和低速车道。在一些山地道路会有这种车道。当你驾驶低速车辆或者你后方有车辆意向超车时,你应该使用爬坡及低速车道。注意指示车道即将终止的信号和道路标志。

 

140. Cycle lanes. These are shown by road markings and signs. You MUST NOT drive or park in a cycle lane marked by a solid white line during its times of operation. Do not drive or park in a cycle lane marked by a broken white line unless it is unavoidable. You MUST NOT park in any cycle lane whilst waiting restrictions apply.

140. 自行车道。自行车道有专门的路面标记和信号与其他车道明确区分开来。在规定的使用时间段内,你不得驶入或者停靠在以白实线划出的自行车道内。在可避免的情况下,也不要驶入或者停靠在以白虚线划出的自行车道内。当车道标明了停车限制时,你不得违反该限制而停靠在任何形式的自行车道内。

Law RTRA sects 5 & 8

 

141. Bus lanes. These are shown by road markings and signs that indicate which (if any) other vehicles are permitted to use the bus lane. Unless otherwise indicated, you should not drive in a bus lane during its period of operation. You may enter a bus lane to stop, to load or unload where this is not prohibited.

141. 公交车道。公交车道有专门的路面标记和信号与其他车道明确区分出来,同时也会标明(如果有)其他允许使用该车道的车辆类型。除非有其他指示,在公交车道运行时间区间内,你不应驶入公交车道。但是如果没有专门的禁止标记时,你可以进入公交车道短时停靠、上下货物。

 

142. High-occupancy vehicle lanes and other designated vehicle lanes. Lanes may be restricted for use by particular types of vehicle; these restrictions may apply some or all of the time. The operating times and vehicle types will be indicated on the accompanying traffic signs. You MUST NOT drive in such lanes during their times of operation unless signs indicate that your vehicle is permitted (see ‘Traffic signs’).

Vehicles permitted to use designated lanes may or may not include cycles, buses, taxis, licensed private hire vehicles, motorcycles, heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) and high-occupancy vehicles (HOVs).

Where HOV lanes are in operation, they MUST ONLY be used by

· vehicles containing at least the minimum number of people indicated on the traffic signs
· any other vehicles, such as buses and motorcycles, as indicated on signs prior to the start of the lane, irrespective of the number of occupants.

142. 高载客车辆车道及其他指定车辆车道。有些车道可能限制了仅允许特定类型的车辆使用。这种限制可能有时间区间,也可能是全天侯的。时间区段及允许车辆都会在车道的交通信号标示出来。如果你驾驶的车型并非指定类型,在限行时间区段内不得驶入该车道。

指定车道通常是仅允许或者不许特定车辆例如自行车、公交车、计程车、特许私有出租车辆、两轮摩托车、重型货车(HGVs)和高载客车辆(HOVs)行驶。当高载客车辆车道运行时,只允许有以下特征的车辆行驶:
· 车辆乘员数目超过指示信号规定的最低限制值;
· 在车道起始处之前交通信号允许行驶的其他车辆,例如公交车、摩托之类,不受最低乘员数的限制。

Laws RTRA sects 5 & 8, & RTA 1988 sect 36

 

143. One-way streets. Traffic MUST travel in the direction indicated by signs. Buses and/or cycles may have a contraflow lane. Choose the correct lane for your exit as soon as you can. Do not change lanes suddenly. Unless road signs or markings indicate otherwise, you should use

· the left-hand lane when going left
· the right-hand lane when going right
· the most appropriate lane when going straight ahead. Remember – traffic could be passing on both sides.

143. 单行街道。车流必须按照信号指示的方向行驶。但是可能存在逆向的公交车和/或自行车车道。驶出单行街道前,应尽早选择正确的车道。不要到了出口附近突然变道。除非信号和标志有不一样的要求,你应该按如下原则行驶:
· 需左拐,行驶在左侧车道;
· 需右拐,行驶在右侧车道;
· 需要直行,则选择车流最顺畅最少阻碍的车道;记住,在单行道上,车辆可以从任何一侧超车。

Laws RTA 1988 sect 36 & RTRA sects 5 & 8

 

General advice (rules 144 to 158) 普遍性建议(144-158)

 

144. You MUST NOT

· drive dangerously
· drive without due care and attention
· drive without reasonable consideration for other road users.

144. 你不得
· 以危险方式驾驶;
· 在驾驶时缺乏应有的谨慎和注意力;
· 在驾驶时缺乏对其他道路使用者的合理体谅。

Law RTA 1988 sects 2 & 3 as amended by RTA 1991

 

145. You MUST NOT drive on or over a pavement, footpath or bridleway except to gain lawful access to property, or in the case of an emergency.

145. 除了在合法进入物业,或者紧急情况之外,你不得在人行道、步行道或者马道上行驶,也不得驶过这些路面。

Laws HA 1835 sect 72 & RTA 1988 sect 34

 

146. Adapt your driving to the appropriate type and condition of road you are on. In particular

· do not treat speed limits as a target. It is often not appropriate or safe to drive at the maximum speed limit
· take the road and traffic conditions into account. Be prepared for unexpected or difficult situations, for example, the road being blocked beyond a blind bend. Be prepared to adjust your speed as a precaution
· where there are junctions, be prepared for road users emerging
· in side roads and country lanes look out for unmarked junctions where nobody has priority
· be prepared to stop at traffic control systems, road works, pedestrian crossings or traffic lights as necessary
· children, are looking the other way, they may step out into the road without seeing you.

146. 调整你的驾驶方式,以适应所在的道路条件。特别是:
·  不要把道路限速看成行驶目标。以最高限速行驶在大多数情况不合适更不安全;
·  对道路或交通情况要有预见性。时刻准备处理意外或者困难情况,例如,在一个盲弯(注:即看不到过弯之后的路况的弯道)之后可能出现的道路阻塞。作为预防措施,在预见到这些情况时做好调整车速的准备。
·  在路口处,要做好应对其他道路使用者突然进入道路的准备;
·  在支路或者乡村道路上,要注意没有标记的路口。因为在这种路口,没有优先方;
·  做好必要时在交通管制系统、道路施工、人行横道和交通信号灯处停车的准备;
·  注视其他方向的儿童,很可能在没有注意到你的情况下进入道路;

 

147. Be considerate. Be careful of and considerate towards all types of road users, especially those requiring extra care (see Rule 204).

· you MUST NOT throw anything out of a vehicle; for example, food or food packaging, cigarette ends, cans, paper or carrier bags. This can endanger other road users, particularly motorcyclists and cyclists.
· try to be understanding if other road users cause problems; they may be inexperienced or not know the area well.
· be patient; remember that anyone can make a mistake.
· do not allow yourself to become agitated or involved if someone is behaving badly on the road. This will only make the situation worse. Pull over, calm down and, when you feel relaxed, continue your journey.
· slow down and hold back if a road user pulls out into your path at a junction. Allow them to get clear. Do not over-react by driving too close behind to intimidate them.

147. 体谅他人。应对所有类型的道路使用者表现出一致的关心和体谅,特别是需要特别关照的使用者(参见规则204)。
·  不得向车外扔任何东西,例如食品或食品包装袋、烟头、易拉罐、纸张或者塑料袋。这会危及其他道路使用者,特别是自行车和摩托车骑行者;
· 尽量尝试理解那些造成问题的其他道路使用者,他们可能是缺乏经验的新手或者对此区域不够熟悉;
· 有耐心。记住,人人都会犯错误;
·在道路上有人举止不良时不要过分激动,更不要卷入其中。这样只会让情况变得更糟。停到路边,冷静一下,当你感觉放松下来之后再继续旅程;
· 在路口有人突然出现并强行进入你的预定道路时,减速(注:让速不让道),保持车距。允许他们安全并线。不要过分反应地通过极端接近去恐吓对方。

Law EPA sect 87

 

148. Safe driving and riding needs concentration. Avoid distractions when driving or riding such as

· loud music (this may mask other sounds)
· trying to read maps
· starting or adjusting any music or radio
· arguing with your passengers or other road users
· eating and drinking
· smoking
You MUST NOT smoke in public transport vehicles or in vehicles used for work purposes in certain prescribed circumstances. Separate regulations apply to England, Wales and Scotland. In England and Wales, the driver MUST NOT smoke or allow anyone to smoke in an enclosed private vehicle carrying someone under 18, including motor caravans.

148. 集中注意力。安全行车或者骑行需要集中注意力。在行驶过程中要避免分心的行为,例如:
· 音乐音量过大(可能淹没其他的声音);
· 试图查看地图;
· 换磁带/CD,或者调收音机;
· 跟乘客或者其他道路使用者争论、吵架;
· 吃东西、喝饮料;
· 抽烟。
在公共交通工具上,或指定环境下工作用途的车辆上你不得抽烟。英格兰、威尔士、苏格兰分别有独立的法规针对此类行为。在英格兰和威尔士,任何封闭的私家车,包括旅行车,当载有18岁以下人员时,驾驶员不得吸烟也不能允许任何人抽烟。

Laws TSf(EV)RTSfP(W)RTPSCP(S)RS-f(PV)R & S-f(W)R

 

Mobile phones and in-vehicle technology 手机和车载技术

 

149. You MUST exercise proper control of your vehicle at all times. You MUST NOT use a hand-held mobile phone, or similar device, when driving or when supervising a learner driver, except to call 999 or 112 in a genuine emergency when it is unsafe or impractical to stop. Never use a hand-held microphone when driving. Using hands-free equipment is also likely to distract your attention from the road. It is far safer not to use any telephone while you are driving or riding – find a safe place to stop first or use the voicemail facility and listen to messages later.

149. 你必须始终对车辆保持完全且合理的操控。在驾驶或者指导学员驾驶的过程中,你不得使用手持移动电话或类似设备,除非是在紧急情况但停车不安全或者不实际时拨打999或112. 驾驶过程中千万不要使用手持话筒。即便是使用免提设备,也可能分散你的道路注意力。驾驶中不使用电话要安全得多——找个安全地点停车再接电话,或者使用语音信箱服务,安全时再听取信息。

Laws RTA 1988 sects 2 & 3, & CUR regs 104 & 110

 

150. There is a danger of driver distraction being caused by in-vehicle systems such as satellite navigation systems, congestion warning systems, PCs, multi-media, etc. You MUST exercise proper control of your vehicle at all times. Do not rely on driver assistance systems such as cruise control or lane departure warnings. They are available to assist but you should not reduce your concentration levels. Do not be distracted by maps or screen-based information (such as navigation or vehicle management systems) while driving or riding. If necessary find a safe place to stop.

150. 使用车载系统,例如卫星导航、拥堵警示、PC、多媒体等等,对驾驶员的注意力有潜在的风险。你必须始终对车辆保持全面且合理的掌控。不要过分依赖驾驶辅助系统,例如自动巡航、车道偏离警告等等。这些系统可以提供协助,但是你不应降低自身的注意力。不要因为在行驶过程中查看地图或信息显示屏(例如导航或行车电脑)而分心。有必要查看时,先寻找安全地点停车。

Laws RTA 1988 sects 2 & 3, & CUR reg 104

 

151. In slow-moving traffic. You should

· reduce the distance between you and the vehicle ahead to maintain traffic flow
· never get so close to the vehicle in front that you cannot stop safely
· leave enough space to be able to manoeuvre if the vehicle in front breaks down or an emergency vehicle needs to get past
· not change lanes to the left to overtake
· allow access into and from side roads, as blocking these will add to congestion
· be aware of cyclists and motorcyclists who may be passing on either side.

151. 车流缓慢时。你应当
· 缩短与前车的车距,避免车流停滞;
· 千万不要车距过小导致自己无法安全停车;
· 四周保留足够的空间,使得在前车急刹车或者安全车辆需要经过时你自己有机动的余量;
· 不要尝试向左变道超车;
· 留出进入支路的路口。不然会让道路更加拥堵。
· 留意自行车和摩托车,它们可能会从任意一侧经过。

Do not block access to a side road

Do not block access to a side road

 

Driving in built-up areas 在居民区行驶

 

152. Residential streets. You should drive slowly and carefully on streets where there are likely to be pedestrians, cyclists and parked cars. In some areas a 20 mph (32 km/h) maximum speed limit may be in force. Look out for

· vehicles emerging from junctions or driveways
· vehicles moving off
· car doors opening
· pedestrians
· children running out from between parked cars
· cyclists and motorcyclists.

152. 居民区街道。在街道上行车,应慢行并更加小心,因为街道上极可能有行人、自行车和停放的车辆。有些区域会强制最高限速为20mph(32km/h)。当心以下情况:
· 突然从路口或者住宅车道中驶出的车辆;
· 起步的车辆;
· 车门突然打开;
· 行人走进街道路面;
· 儿童从路面停放的车辆之间突然跑出;
· 自行车和摩托车。

 

153Traffic-calming measures. On some roads there are features such as road humps, chicanes and narrowings which are intended to slow you down. When you approach these features reduce your speed. Allow cyclists and motorcyclists room to pass through them. Maintain a reduced speed along the whole of the stretch of road within the calming measures. Give way to oncoming road users if directed to do so by signs. You should not overtake other moving road users while in these areas.

153. 交通纾缓措施(Traffic-calming measures)。在有些道路上会设置一些设施来引导车速放慢,例如减速路拱、减速弯和路面变窄。当你接近这些设施时请减速。应给自行车和摩托车留足够空间通过。在整个交通纾缓区域内都应保持较低的速度。如果信号指示如此,请让路使对向先行。只要前车在行进,在交通纾缓区域内都不要尝试超车。

Chicanes may be used to slow traffic down

Chicanes may be used to slow traffic down

 

Country roads 乡村道路

 

154. Take extra care on country roads and reduce your speed at approaches to bends, which can be sharper than they appear, and at junctions and turnings, which may be partially hidden. Be prepared for pedestrians, horse riders, cyclists, slow-moving farm vehicles or mud on the road surface. Make sure you can stop within the distance you can see to be clear. You should also reduce your speed where country roads enter villages.

154. 在乡村道路上行驶应格外当心,速度也应放慢。因为乡间道路的弯道可能比看起来更加急,路口也很可能部分被遮蔽。做好应对路面上出现行人、马匹、自行车、低速农机以及泥土的准备。确保你可以看清整个安全停车距离内的路况。在道路进入村庄时,你也应减速。

 

155. Single-track roads. These are only wide enough for one vehicle. They may have special passing places. If you see a vehicle coming towards you, or the driver behind wants to overtake, pull into a passing place on your left, or wait opposite a passing place on your right. Give way to vehicles coming uphill whenever you can. If necessary, reverse until you reach a passing place to let the other vehicle pass. Slow down when passing pedestrians, cyclists and horse riders.

155. 单车道公路。这种道路仅有一辆车通过的宽度。此道路上可能设置回车区/让车区。如果你看到有对向来车,或者后车试图超车,应及时靠边停靠在道路左侧会车区/让车区,或者在你右侧让车区的对面等候(注:即等候对方进入让车区使道路清空。让车区在谁一侧,谁就应当进入让车)。只要情况许可,请为上坡车辆让路。必要时倒车回到让车区,让其他车辆通过。在超越行人、自行车和骑马者时,应该充分减速。

 

156. Do not park in passing places.

Vehicles prohibited from using roads and pavements

156. 不要在让车区中停放车辆。
车辆禁止使用道路和人行道。

 

157. Certain motorised vehicles do not meet the construction and technical requirements for road vehicles and are generally not intended, not suitable and not legal for road, pavement, footpath, cycle path or bridleway use. These include most types of miniature motorcycles, also called mini motos, and motorised scooters, also called go peds, which are powered by electric or internal combustion engines. These types of vehicle MUST NOT be used on roads, pavements, footpaths or bridleways.

157. 某些机动车量,由于不符合道路车辆结构与技术要求,在道路、人行道、步行道、自行车道、马道上使用通常是不应该、不合适也不合法的。这些车包括大部分类型的小型摩托车,也叫迷你摩托车、由电力或内燃机驱动的机动滑板车,也叫go peds。这类车辆不得在公路、人行道、步行道或马道上使用。

Laws RTA 1988 sects 3441a424763 & 66HA 1835 sect 72R(S)A sect 129

 

158. Certain models of motorcycles, motor tricycles and quadricycles, also called quad bikes, are suitable only for off-road use and do not meet legal standards for use on roads. Vehicles that do not meet these standards MUST NOT be used on roads. They MUST NOT be used on pavements, footpaths, cycle paths or bridleways either. You MUST make sure that any motorcycle, motor tricycle, quadricycle or any other motor vehicle meets legal standards and is properly registered, taxed and insured before using it on the roads. Even when registered, taxed and insured for the road, vehicles MUST NOT be used on pavements.

158. 某些类型的摩托车、三轮摩托和四轮摩托,也叫四轮单车的,由于不符合道路使用的标准,只能在非公众道路区域使用,例如越野。不符合道路行驶标准的车辆一律不得在公众道路使用,也不得在人行道、步行道、自行车道或马道等道路上行驶。在道路上使用的摩托车、三轮摩托、四轮摩托或其他类型的摩托车辆,都必须符合法定标准,且正确注册、纳税和保险。即便是经过注册、纳税并保险之后,摩托车也不得在人行道上行驶。

Laws RTA 1988 sects 3441a42476366 & 156HA 1835 sect 72R(S)A sect 129, & VERA sects 12931A & 43A