Rules for drivers and motorcyclists (89 to 102) 所有汽车司机与摩托车驾驶员都应遵守的规则(89-102)

 

The Highway Code rules for drivers and motorcyclists, including vehicle condition, fitness to drive, alcohol and drugs, what to do before setting off, vehicle towing and loading and seat belts and child restraints.

对于所有汽车司机与摩托车驾驶员的公路法规汇编,包括车况,适宜驾驶的身体条件,酒精和毒品,出发前的准备,车辆牵引和负载,安全带和儿童座椅的内容。

 

Vehicle condition (rule 89) 车况 (规则 89)

 

89. Vehicle condition. You MUST ensure your vehicle and trailer comply with the full requirements of the Road Vehicles (Construction and Use) Regulations and Road Vehicles Lighting Regulations (see ‘The road user and the law’).

89. 车况。你必须保证车辆和拖车完全符合《道路车辆规定(结构与使用)》和《道路车辆照明规定》的全部要求(参见附件4 )。

 

Fitness to drive (rules 90 to 94) 适宜驾驶的身体条件(规则 90-94)

 

90. Make sure that you are fit to drive. You MUST report to the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) any health condition likely to affect your driving.

90. 确保身体条件适宜驾驶。 如果出现任何可能会影响驾驶的健康问题,你都必须向驾驶员与车辆注册管理局(Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency,DVLA,英国的驾照与车牌照管理机构,总部在威尔士的斯汪西)报告。

Law RTA 1988 sect 94

 

91. Driving when you are tired greatly increases your risk of collision. To minimise this risk

· make sure you are fit to drive. Do not begin a journey if you are tired. Get a good night’s sleep before embarking on a long journey
· avoid undertaking long journeys between midnight and 6 am, when natural alertness is at a minimum
· plan your journey to take sufficient breaks. A minimum break of at least 15 minutes after every two hours of driving is recommended
· if you feel at all sleepy, stop in a safe place. Do not stop on the hard shoulder of a motorway
· the most effective ways to counter sleepiness are to drink, for example, two cups of caffeinated coffee and to take a short nap (at least 15 minutes)

91. 疲劳驾驶会极大地提升发生撞车事故的风险。为最小化这种风险,你应该:
·确保身体条件适宜驾驶。不要在身体疲劳时驾车上路。在开始长途行驶前,好好地睡一觉。
·避免在午夜至凌晨6点这段时间长时间驾驶,此时身体的自然警觉处于最低的水平。
·提前对行程进行合理规划,预备足够的休息时间。建议每驾驶2小时至少休息15分钟。
·如果在驾驶途中感觉到困意,尽快停靠在安全的地点休息。不要停在高速公路的硬路肩上。
·抵抗困意最有效的方法是喝点东西,例如两杯含咖啡因的咖啡,或者找地方打个小盹(至少15分钟)

 

92. Vision. You MUST be able to read a vehicle number plate, in good daylight, from a distance of 20 metres (or 20.5 metres where the old style number plate is used). If you need to wear glasses (or contact lenses) to do this, you MUST wear them at all times while driving. The police have the power to require a driver to undertake an eyesight test.

92. 视力。在良好的光照条件下,司机必须能看清20米距离上的车牌照(或者20.5米距离外的老式车牌)。如果你需要戴眼镜(或隐形眼镜)才能达到以上的要求,则在驾车的过程中你必须佩戴它。警察有权要求司机进行视力测验。

Laws RTA 1988 sect 96, & MV(DL)R reg 40 & sched 8

 

93. Slow down, and if necessary stop, if you are dazzled by bright sunlight.

93. 如果阳光导致目眩,应该减缓车速,必要时停车。

 

94. At night or in poor visibility, do not use tinted glasses, lenses or visors if they restrict your vision.

94. 在夜间或低能见度条件下,由于可能会限制视野,不要使用太阳镜、深色镜片或遮光板。

 

Alcohol and drugs (rules 95 to 96) 酒精和药物(规则95-96)

 

95. Do not drink and drive as it will seriously affect your judgement and abilities.

In England and Wales you MUST NOT drive with a breath alcohol level higher than 35 microgrammes/100 millilitres of breath or a blood alcohol level of more than 80 milligrammes/100 millilitres of blood.

In Scotland the legal limits are lower. You MUST NOT drive with a breath alcohol level higher than 22 microgrammes/100 millilitres of breath or a blood alcohol level of more than 50 milligrammes/100 millilitres of blood.

Alcohol will

· give a false sense of confidence
· reduce co-ordination and slow down reactions
· affect judgement of speed, distance and risk
· reduce your driving ability, even if you’re below the legal limit
· take time to leave your body; you may be unfit to drive in the evening after drinking at lunchtime, or in the morning after drinking the previous evening.
· The best solution is not to drink at all when planning to drive because any amount of alcohol affects your ability to drive safely. If you are going to drink, arrange another means of transport.

95. 不要酒后驾驶,酒精会严重影响你的判断和反应能力。

在英格兰和威尔士,不得在呼出气体酒精含量大于等于35微克/100毫升,或者血液中酒精含量大于等于80毫克/100毫升的身体条件下开车。

苏格兰的标准会更严一些。不得在呼出气体酒精含量大于等于22微克/100毫升,或者血液中酒精含量大于等于50毫克/100毫升的身体条件下开车。

酒精会:

·使人过分自信;
·降低人的协调性和反应速度;
·影响人对速度、距离和风险的判断;
·即便酒精含量低于法定水平,驾驶能力也会明显降低;
·需要很长时间才能完全代谢。你可能中午喝酒后到晚上都不满足开车的条件,或者前一天晚上喝酒后,第二天早上也无法开车。

最好的解决方式是一旦有驾车计划就不喝酒,因为任何程度的酒精都会影响到安全行车。如果想喝酒,那么请选择其他的交通方式。

Laws RTA 1988 sects 45 & 11(2), & PLSR

 

96. You MUST NOT drive under the influence of drugs or medicine. For medicines, check with your doctor or pharmacist and do not drive if you are advised that you may be impaired.

You MUST NOT drive if you have illegal drugs or certain medicines in your blood above specified limits. It is highly dangerous so never take illegal drugs if you intend to drive; the effects are unpredictable, but can be even more severe than alcohol and result in fatal or serious road crashes.( Illegal drugs have been specified at very low levels so even small amounts of use could be above the specified limits. The limits for certain medicines have been specified at higher levels, above the levels generally found in the blood of patients who have taken normal therapeutic doses. If you are found to have a concentration of a drug above its specified limit in your blood because you have been prescribed or legitimately supplied a particularly high dose of medicine, then you can raise a statutory medical defence, provided your driving was not impaired by the medicine you are taking.)

96. 不得在药物的影响下驾驶车辆。服药前应当查看说明书或者询问医生或药剂师的意见,如果药物有影响不要开车。

如果你使用了使用非法药物或者特定药物在血液中浓度超过一定水平,不得驾驶车辆。在药物影响下开车非常危险,如果你打算驾驶车辆,绝对不要使用非法药物,药物会造成何等层次影响是不可预知的,有可能比酒精影响更加剧烈,从而造成致命的交通事故。(非法药物限定值很小,所以即使极少量使用便可能超值规定的限值。对某些药品有比较宽松的限定,上面的谁采取正常治疗剂量的患者血液中发现的一般水平。如果您发现有在你的血液超过其指定的限制药物的浓度,因为你已经约定或者约定不合法地提供药品的特别高的剂量,那么你可以提出一个法定的医疗防御,只要你的驾驶没有被削弱药你正在服用。)

Law RTA 1988 sects 4 & 5

 

Before setting off (rule 97) 出发之前(97)

 

97. Before setting off. You should ensure that

· you have planned your route and allowed sufficient time
· clothing and footwear do not prevent you using the controls in the correct manner
· you know where all the controls are and how to use them before you need them. Not all vehicles are the same; do not wait until it is too late to find out
· your mirrors and seat are adjusted correctly to ensure comfort, full control and maximum vision
· head restraints are properly adjusted to reduce the risk of neck and spine injuries in the event of a collision
· you have sufficient fuel before commencing your journey, especially if it includes motorway driving. It can be dangerous to lose power when driving in traffic
· ensure your vehicle is legal and roadworthy
· switch off your mobile phone.

97. 出发之前,你应该确保:
·规划了整个行程,为行车预留了足够时间;
·衣物和鞋子对正常操控车辆没有造成妨害;
·知道车辆的相关操纵机构的位置和使用方式。因为并非所有的车辆都采用同样的设计,千万不要到了要用的时候才想起去找这些设备;
·后视镜与座位调整正确,保证舒适的同时提供最佳的操控性能和最大视野;
·头枕调整到合适位置,这样可以降低发生碰撞时颈部和脊椎受到伤害的风险;
·开始旅程之前有足够的油量,特别是旅途中包括高速公路的时候。在行驶中失去动力可能会造成危险;
·车辆合法且满足最低上路要求(注:简而言之就是通过年检)。
·关闭手机。

Make sure head restraints are properly adjusted

Make sure head restraints are properly adjusted

 

Vehicle towing and loading (rule 98) 车辆的拖曳和载货(98)

 

98. Vehicle towing and loading. As a driver

· you MUST NOT tow more than your licence permits. If you passed a car test after 1 Jan 1997 you are restricted on the weight of trailer you can tow
· you MUST NOT overload your vehicle or trailer. You should not tow a weight greater than that recommended by the manufacturer of your vehicle
· you MUST secure your load and it MUST NOT stick out dangerously. Make sure any heavy or sharp objects and any animals are secured safely. If there is a collision, they might hit someone inside the vehicle and cause serious injury
· you should properly distribute the weight in your caravan or trailer with heavy items mainly over the axle(s) and ensure a downward load on the tow ball. Manufacturer’s recommended weight and tow ball load should not be exceeded. This should avoid the possibility of swerving or snaking and going out of control. If this does happen, ease off the accelerator and reduce speed gently to regain control
· carrying a load or pulling a trailer may require you to adjust the headlights.
In the event of a breakdown, be aware that towing a vehicle on a tow rope is potentially dangerous. You should consider professional recovery.

98. 车辆的拖曳和载货。作为司机:
·你不得拖曳超过驾照允许的拖车。如果你是在1997年1月之后通过的驾考,你的驾照将会限制可以拖曳的拖车重量。
·你不得使汽车或拖车超载。也不应使拖曳的总重量超过汽车生产商的建议数值。
·你必须牢靠地固定载货,且不得危险地伸出车辆之外。确保任何重物、尖锐物品和动物都被安全固定。发生碰撞时,这些东西可能会击中车里的人员并造成严重的伤亡。
·你应该合理地安置车厢或拖车内的载货,重物尽可能放置在车轴上方,保证拖车球受向下的载荷。不应超过汽车生产商推荐的载荷和拖车球负荷。这样做可以避免拖车出现跑偏、蛇形而导致最后失控的可能性。如果拖车出现失控,应当松开油门,缓缓减速来恢复控制。
·车子载重或者拖曳拖车之后,可能需要调节大灯高低。

在车辆发生故障时,应知晓用拖车绳牵引车辆存在潜在危险。因此应尽量考虑使用专业的拖车服务。

Laws CUR reg 100 & MV(DL)R reg 43

 

Seat belts and child restraints (rules 99 to 102) 安全带和儿童座椅(99-102)

 

99. You MUST wear a seat belt in cars, vans and other goods vehicles if one is fitted (see table below). Adults, and children aged 14 years and over, MUST use a seat belt or child restraint, where fitted, when seated in minibuses, buses and coaches. Exemptions are allowed for the holders of medical exemption certificates and those making deliveries or collections in goods vehicles when travelling less than 50 metres (approx 162 feet).

99. 乘坐轿车、客货两用车(van)以及其他货运车辆时,只要车辆上提供(见下表),必须使用安全带。乘坐中巴(minibus)、市内公共汽车(bus)和长途巴士(coach)时,只要车辆上提供,成年人和年满14岁的儿童必须使用安全带或儿童座椅。除非是以下情况:拥有医学豁免证明,以及货车为送货或收件而行驶距离不超过50m(大约162英尺)时。

Laws RTA 1988 sects 14 & 15MV(WSB)RMV(WSBCFS)R &MV(WSB)(A)R

Seat belt requirements. This table summarises the main legal requirements for wearing seat belts in cars, vans and other goods vehicles.

安全带要求。下表列出了在乘坐轿车、客货两用车及其他货运车辆时关于使用安全带的主要法令性要求

Front seat Rear seat Who is responsible?
Driver Seat beltMUSTbe worn if fitted Driver
Child under 3 years of age Correct child restraintMUSTbe used Correct child restraint MUST be used. If one is not available in a taxi, may travel unrestrained. Driver
Child from 3rd birthday up to 1.35 metres in height (or 12th birthday, whichever they reach first) Correct child restraintMUSTbe used Correct child restraint MUST be used where seat belts fitted. MUST use adult belt if correct child restraint is not available in a licensed taxi or private hire vehicle, or for reasons of unexpected necessity over a short distance, or if two occupied restraints prevent fitment of a third. Driver
Child over 1.35 metres (approx 4ft 5ins) in height or 12 or 13 years Seat beltMUSTbe worn if available Seat belt MUST be worn if available Driver
Adult passengers aged 14 and over Seat beltMUSTbe worn if available Seat belt MUST be worn if available Passenger

 

前排 后排 谁负责?
司机 安全带必须系,如果提供 司机
儿童 小于3岁 必须使用合适的儿童座椅 必须使用合适的儿童座椅. 如果出租车上没有则不受限 司机
儿童 从3岁生日到身高1.35m(或12岁生日, 按先到的为准) 必须使用合适的儿童座椅 如有安全带,必须使用合适的儿童座椅. 如果合规的出租车和租赁车上没有的话,或者由于各种情况要行驶恨短距离,或者已用两个限制了第三个的使用,必须使用成人安全带。 司机
儿童 身高超过1.35m 或者 12 或者 13 岁 如果有安全带必须 如果有安全带必须 司机
成人 14岁或者以上的乘客 如果有安全带必须 如果有安全带必须 乘客

 

100. The driver MUST ensure that all children under 14 years of age in cars, vans and other goods vehicles wear seat belts or sit in an approved child restraint where required (see table above). If a child is under 1.35 metres (approx 4 feet 5 inches) tall, a baby seat, child seat, booster seat or booster cushion MUST be used suitable for the child’s weight and fitted to the manufacturer’s instructions.

100. 乘坐轿车、客货两用车及其他货运车辆时,司机必须确保车内不满14岁的儿童已经按照规定系好安全带,或已经坐在合格的儿童安全座椅上(见上表)。如果儿童身高不足1.35米,必须按生产商说明,使用适合他体重的婴儿座椅、儿童座椅、增高座椅或增高坐垫。

Laws RTA 1988 sects 14 & 15MV(WSB)RMV(WSBCFS)R &MV(WSB)(A)R

Highway code100

Make sure that a child uses a suitable restraint which is correctly adjusted

 

101. A rear-facing baby seat MUST NOT be fitted into a seat protected by an active frontal airbag, as in a crash it can cause serious injury or death to the child.

101. 后向式婴儿座椅不得安装在有气囊保护的位置上。否则在发生车祸时会造成婴儿的严重伤害或死亡。

Laws RTA 1988 sects 14 & 15MV(WSB)RMV(WSBCFS)R &MV(WSB)(A)R

 

102. Children in cars, vans and other goods vehicles. Drivers who are carrying children in cars, vans and other goods vehicles should also ensure that

· children should get into the vehicle through the door nearest the kerb
· child restraints are properly fitted to manufacturer’s instructions
· children do not sit behind the rear seats in an estate car or hatchback, unless a special child seat has been fitted
· the child safety door locks, where fitted, are used when children are in the vehicle
· children are kept under control.

102. 儿童乘坐轿车、客货两用车及其他货运车辆。当儿童乘坐轿车、客货两用车及其他货运车辆时,司机应确保:
·儿童应从最靠近路缘的车门上车;
·儿童座椅已经按生产商说明正确安装;
·如果是旅行车或掀背车型,除非安装有专门的儿童座椅,儿童不能坐在后座之后(注:就是后备箱里);
·如果车门安装有童锁,童锁应锁上;
·儿童处于照看之下